Fire Sprinkler System

Fire sprinkler system

History of Fire Sprinklers:

  • Officially developed and used by Henry Parmalee in 1874 to protect his piano factory.
  • Used clay and wood pipes with holes drilled into them.
  • A tank on the roof of the structure was drained during a fire and released the water into the pipes.
  • Winter was a problem, and making sure someone was watching at all times.


Fire Sprinkler System Time Line:

1806 -John Carey designs a system of perforated pipes, plungers, and burning strings.

1812 -Colonel William Congreve designs perforated pipes with valves.

1875 -Parmelee invents the first modern sprinkler. It consists of shell and soldered brass cap.

1882 -Grinnell invents an improved sprinkler that can withstand higher pressures and distributes water more evenly.

1896 -N.F.P.A. is officially formed and publishes codes for automatic sprinkler installation.


A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a water supply system, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which firesprinklers are connected.

Having the right sprinkler system in a building is a must. Just as there are many types of buildings in varying conditions, there are also different fire sprinkler system types. If you don’t have an adequate and proper system, your building won’t have the protection it needs.

A sprinkler system consists of a series of heads that are connected to a system of pipes, which are usually installed on the ceiling, although they can be installed on walls as well. Pipes are generally made out of fire-resistant plastic, steel, or copper. Depending on the system type, the pipes can be filled with water, pressurized air, or nitrogen gas.

How Sprinklers Work:

A fire sprinkler system are a network of fixed water pipes supplied by two water sources with sprinkler heads fitted at recommended distances apart. Water can be supplied from a tank via pumps or from the town mains, providing the flow is sufficient and fills the pipes.

Detector heads are nozzles that direct a jet of water on to a deflector plate which defuses over a large area. The water is held back by a glass bulb or soldered strut which holds a plug in place. When heat is applied from a fire below, the glass bulb will burst, due to expansion of the liquid in the bulb, or the solder will melt, which then releases the plug and water flows through the sprinkler head.

The hot gases from a fire will raise the temperature at ceiling level and when the area adjacent to the head reaches a specific temperature that sprinkler head will actuate and spray water on to a fire. Only the sprinklers over the fire will open and the others will remain closed. This limits any damage to areas where there is no fire and reduces the amount of water needed.

Sprinkler heads can be placed in enclosed roof spaces and into floor ducts to protect areas where a fire can start without being noticed. In a large warehouse sprinklers may be placed in the storage racks as well as the roof.

At the point where the water enters the sprinkler system there is a valve. This can be used to shut off the system for maintenance. For safety reasons it is kept locked open and only authorized persons should be able to close it.

A pelton wheel rotates when water starts flowing in the system which in turn operates a warning bell. This way the sprinkler system both controls the fire and gives an alarm using water, not electricity. Main water shut off valve which allows the system to be closed down when the fire has been extinguished.

Working of sprinkler system

Types of Fire sprinkler Systems

Common Fire sprinkler Systems:

Wet Fire Sprinkler Systems:

The wet-pipe system employs automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply. The water discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by a fire. Only those sprinklers which have been operated by heat over the fire will discharge water.

Dry Pipe Systems

The dry-pipe system employs automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure. When released, the water flows into the piping system and discharges only from those sprinklers which have been operated by the fire. Dry-pipe systems are installed in lieu of wet-pipe systems where piping is subject to freezing.

Special Hazard Fire Protection Systems:

Special systems are designed to detect and extinguish fires in locations where standard suppression systems are not appropriate or adequate.

Pre-action Systems:

A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air under pressure with a supplemental detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. Operation of the detection system activates tripping devices that open a deluge valve, simultaneously and without loss of air pressure in the system.

Deluge Sprinkler System:

Sprinkler system employing open sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that is connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers.

Anti-Freeze Sprinkler System:

A wet pipe sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system, that contains an anti-freeze solution and that are connected to a water supply.

Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems:

The Wet pipe fire sprinkler system contains pressurized water inside the pipes ready for use at all times. The second type of fire sprinkler system issues water by demand. Damage to property by water from fire sprinklers or from a fire sprinkler system is remote compared to the likelihood of widespread damage caused by fire, however fire sprinklers must be maintained to ensure their optimum performance.

The wet sprinkler system can reduce the spread of fire quickly using a either a fire sprinkler system with water by demand, or a pressurized wet fire sprinkler system. Potential for leaks in the wet system from extended periods water pressurization are prevalent as is water stagnation and biological contamination. Heat is necessary to prevent any freezing of the water within the wet fire sprinkler system fin colder climates.

Dry pipe sprinler systems:

A dry pipe installation is a sprinkler installation in which the installation pipe work is permanently charged with gas under pressure above the alarm (dry pipe) valve and with water under pressure below the valve. When a sprinkler head opens, the gas pressure drops allowing the dry pipe valve to open and admit water to the installation. To speed up the opening of the valve an accelerator or exhauster may be included in the installation.

Dry pipe installations are only permitted for installations where freezing of water in the pipes would be a problem (e.g. cold and cool stores or areas where climatic conditions may cause freezing) or in areas where the ambient temperature is above 70°C (e.g. drying ovens).

Dry pipe sprinkler installations must be carefully designed to ensure that the discharge of water onto a fire is not unduly delayed in order to ensure that effective fire control is achieved. Argus Fire Protection’s design and engineering team are able to tailor the design of these systems to ensure that your specific needs are met and compliance with the relevant codes and standards is achieved.

Pre-action Sprinkler System:

Pre-action sprinkler systems are utilized in situations where a greater level of security against false discharge of water is required.

Schematic of a pneumatically pre-action system.

A pre-action sprinkler system is a form of dry pipe sprinkler system incorporating water discharge pipework fitted with closed sprinkler heads, but charged with low pressure gas for supervision purposes. Water entry to this piping system is controlled by an independent detection system, usually either electric (e.g. heat detectors, smoke detectors, or other detectors suited to the specific risk being protected) or a further system of small diameter piping with closed sprinkler heads charged with gas for control purposes.

Before water may be discharged it is necessary that both the detection system and the sprinkler heads on the discharge pipework operate.

Pre-action sprinkler systems are categorized by their style of operation (generally either single interlock or double interlock) and their type of detection (generally electric or pneumatic) as described below.

Types of Pre-action Sprinkler Systems

The basic types of pre-action sprinkler systems and their typical uses are described below.

Single Interlocked:

With a single interlocked pre-action sprinkler system the pre-action control valve opens and charges the discharge pipework with water on operation of the detection system. Water is not discharged from the discharge pipework until one of the closed head sprinklers on the discharge pipework operates.

The discharge pipework is normally charged with gas at low pressure for supervision purposes to ensure that the pipe remains closed. If a sprinkler on the discharge pipework is operated without the detection system operating then the pre-action system will provide indication of a defect state, so that the service agent can be brought to site to repair the system.

Single interlock pre–action systems are typically installed to protect sensitive equipment such as computer server suites which require a higher level of protection against accidental water discharge.

Double Interlocked:

With a double interlocked pre-action sprinkler system the pre-action control valve does not open until both the detection system and one of the closed head sprinklers on the discharge pipework operates.

Double interlocked pre-action sprinkler systems are more complex than single interlocked sprinkler systems and are therefore considered to be less reliable. In addition because the pre-action control valve does not open until both the detection system and a closed head sprinklers on the discharge pipework operate there is a longer delay before water is discharged onto the fire.

Pneumatic Detection:

The most common type of detection for a pre-action sprinkler system is pneumatic detection where a system of small diameter piping with closed sprinkler heads charged with gas (normally dry air) is distributed throughout the enclosure for detection and control purposes. When a sprinkler on the detection network operates, the gas pressure is lost and the pre-action control valve operates.

Deluge and Water Spray Systems:

Deluge systems are installations with a discharge pipe array fitted with open sprinkler heads or water spray nozzles with the water to the discharge pipe array being controlled by a quick opening (deluge) valve.

The operation of the deluge valve is controlled by an independent detection system, usually either electric (e.g. heat detectors, smoke detectors, or other detectors suited to the specific risk being protected) or a further system of small diameter piping with closed sprinkler heads charged with gas or water for control purposes.

Schematic of a pneumatically activated  deluge system.

On operation of the detection system the deluge valve is opened, water is admitted into the discharge pipe array and is discharged through the open sprinklers or water spray nozzles to provide complete coverage of the entire protected area.

Deluge systems are designed primarily for the protection of high hazard risks where intensive fires with a rapid rate of propagation are expected and it is desirable to discharge water simultaneously over the entire zone in which the fire may occur.

Water spray systems are utilized for more challenging fires where it is necessary to direct the water onto the hazard or surface being protected using directional nozzles. Water spray systems are most commonly used for exposure protection of bulk storage flammable and combustible liquid tanks to cool the shell, prevent explosion or collapse of the tank and extension of the fire. In addition, water spray systems can be utilized for extinguishable and control of some flammable liquids fires, some combustible liquid fires, class A combustibles, and electrical transformer applications.

Sprinkler Head Types:

Spray sprinklers are manufactured in three basic styles. A standard spray upright (SSU) sprinkler is mounted on upright above a branch line pipe, usually in a room with exposed structural elements, and has a deflector, a metal plate whose edge is distinctively bent to deflect water downward from the sprinkler. A standard spray pendant (SSP) sprinkler is mounted below the branch line, usually mounted at or below the surface of a suspended ceiling and is characterized by a flat deflector. SSU and SSP discharge patterns are designed to be the same. Sidewall sprinklers have a specifically designed deflector that allows the sprinkler to discharge water from a wall-mounted position.

Variations on upright, pendant, and sidewall sprinkler are the dry upright, dry pendant, and dry sidewall sprinklers. These special sprinklers are manufactured with a seal at the inlet that prevents water from entering the nipple until the sprinkler actuates. These sprinklers can be extended from a wet pipe system into an unheated area, such as a walk-in freezer, an outside loading dock, or an unheated attic space, or can be used in the pendant position on a dry pipe system to prevent condensation from entering the sprinkler and freezing.





Sprinkler Coverage:

Another development in sprinkler manufacturing is the extended coverage sprinkler. The deflectors on these sprinklers are designed to discharge water over larger areas than standard sprinklers. While this means that each sprinkler must have a higher flow, it results in increased allowable distance between sprinklers, with the possibility that fewer sprinklers may be required in a compartment given size.

Sprinkler Responses:

A major development in sprinkler technology was the quick response sprinkler, a sprinkler with specially designed response element that allows the rapid transfer of heat to the heat-responsive element and provides a more expeditious delivery of water to the fire. At the time of sprinkler actuation, the fire should be smaller with a quick response sprinkler than with a standard response sprinkler, resulting in fewer sprinklers likely to actuate. Sprinkler elements are either glass bulbs or eutectic (soldered) elements.

The response of quick response and standard response sprinklers can be modeled by designers to estimate the time for a sprinkler to actuate, given ceiling height, fire size, and response time index (RTI), using the DETACT computer program,developed by the Building and Fire Research Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Response time index is a measure of the sensitivity of a sprinkler heat responsive element, with low RTI values being very sensitive to actuation by heat, and high RTI values being less sensitive.

Sprinkler Head Temperature Ratings:

Sprinkler for Storage Applications:

Large Drop sprinklers are for specialized high challenge fire hazards. An sprinkler has a quick response element and an extra large orifice that allows for greater amounts of water to be applied early in the fire development, usually on a high challenge fire. Large drop sprinklers have large deflectors with widely spaced teeth to facilitate the creation of large water drops intended to penetrate a high velocity fire plume without evaporating, resulting in some water reaching the burning materials. The fire plume is the column of smoke and gas traveling upward from a fire.

Sprinkler System Inspection Requirements:

NFPA requires that certain activities be performed at prescribed frequencies. However, rarely does an inspection and test agreement assign all of these activities and frequencies to a fire prevention company. To comply fully, an implied partnership is formed between the owner or the ownerʼs representative and the contractor. All of the requirements of NFPA 25 are the responsibility of the owner, and the contractor relies on the owner to perform all inspections and tests not specified in the agreement.

Unless specifically referenced in the agreement all other less-frequent activities are not included such as testing gauges every 5 years, testing sprinklers every 5, 10, 20, or 50 years; and internally inspecting alarm valve, check valves, strainers, filters, and orifices. These activities are normally performed by the fire protection contractor but are invoiced as additional periodic services.


It is important for sprinkler designers and fire alarm designers to work together in buildings of any size or complexity. The fire alarm system will often have an annunciation to indicate the location of the alarm to the fire service. Coordination is essential to furnish the fire service with clear information on the fire or its location.

The sprinkler piping arrangement will determine how specific a fire alarm annunciator is able to indicate water flow signals. In other than very small buildings, a separate sprinkler zone should be provided for each floor level. This will allow the fire alarm annunciation to indicate the floor level, directing the firefighters to the correct floor.

As the size of each floor increases, the amount of time it takes firefighters to search a floor to find the fire location increases. Large floor levels should be divided into zones (figure 8.2).

This accomplishes two things:

(1) it allows the fire alarm to indicate the fire location more specifically within a floor, and

(2) it limits the system area taken out of service for maintenance, repairs, or renovations.

Sprinkler designers should consider firefighter access when arranging zones. As a case in point, consider an apartment building in which some individual apartments span two stories (figure 8.3). If the two-story units can only be accessed from one level, the sprinklers in both levels of those units should be zoned with the level of entry.

In buildings with standpipe systems, sprinkler systems are usually combined with them and fed by a single water supply. Typically, all sprinklers would be located downstream from a zone control valve that will shut off water to all sprinklers but not to fire hose connections. This allows the hose connections to remain available for manual fire suppression during times when one or more sprinkler zones are shut off for any reason, either before or during an emergency incident.

Control Valves:

Valves that control sprinkler systems or specific zones must normally remain open. Codes often require them to be supervised electrically by the fire alarm system or another method. Electronic supervision can help ensure that valves are returned to the open position after repair or maintenance.

Fire service personnel often need rapid access to water supply control valves. If a valve is closed when an incident occurs, it may need to be opened to permit the flow of water. Conversely, a sprinkler valve may need to be closed to assist in manual suppression efforts. At the conclusion of an incident, valves are turned off as quickly as possible to limit water damage. This also allows the fire service units to return to service as soon as possible to be available for other responses. Accordingly, careful consideration should be given to access, signage and proper pre incident planning.

Valves can be installed for a variety of purposes, including main shutoff, zone (sectional) shutoff, fire pump bypass, pump testing, draining, and testing. Control valves are not installed in fire department connection (FDC) feed lines; this ensures that this important backup to the primary water source can never be shut down easily or inadvertently.

Labeling each valve clearly to indicate its purpose avoids confusion. This can be helpful during an emergency incident and during repair or maintenance, when a valve can inadvertently be shut off or left shut. Using descriptive labels such as “sprinkler system 12th floor” or “pump bypass — normally closed” are far better than simply “control valve.” Some jurisdictions also require color coding of valves or valve handles.

Glossary of Terms:

Back flow Prevented: Check valve that will close at zero flow.

Back flow Prevention: Arrangement of pipe and fittings designed to prevent reverse flow and back siphoning of potential contaminants into the water supply.

Check Meter: Meter installed by the Water Company to monitor potential illegal usage, no standing or volumetric charge is made unless there is usage for purposes other than fire related.

Check Valve: Device to ensure that water only flows in the single intended direction in a pipe.

Cistern: Water Storage vessel with a water surface exposed to atmospheric pressure.

Communication Pipe: The section of service pipe owned and maintained by the Water Undertaker.

Downstream: In the direction of normal flow of the water in a pipe

Priority Demand Valve: Device automatically operated by control system to isolate the flow to the domestic system in the event of a fire, thus ensuring all available pressure and flow is directed to the sprinkler system.

Pump and Tank Supply: Supply of water from a storage cistern via a booster pump to ensure adequate pressure and flow to meet sprinkler system requirements.

Service Pipe: The branch from a water main to the first internal stop valve intended to provide a supply of water to a specific customer or group of customers.

Sprinkler Head: The outlet fitting from which water is discharged in a spray pattern to control fires.

Sprinkler System: The assembly of pipes fittings and valves to distribute water under pressure to sprinkler heads.

Stop Valve: Device to isolate the supply of water. Also referred to as a “stop tap.”

Supply Pipe: The Section of service pipe owned and maintained by the customer.

Upstream: In the direction opposite to the normal flow of water flow in a pipe.

Click the below link to download the fire prevention safety check sheet



Fireworks Safety

Fireworks Safety


Diwali is thoroughly enjoyed by people of all age groups as they love the splendor and sparkle of fireworks. The earthen lamps that we light on Diwali night are generally placed on balcony and window ledges. So ensure that these are not near any flammable material like wood, cloth or paper. Usually, decorative lights are used on special occasions only and as such not much care is given to one’s life. The electric lights should never be tied to any metal poles as any current leak can energize the pole and give a shock to anyone who touches the pole.

All accidents due to fireworks occur as a result of carelessness, negligence and ignorance. But these can certainly be avoided by observing some very simple precautions. All of us enjoy the pleasure of light and sound but when disaster strikes the injured has to bear the cross. If you’re going to set off fireworks at home this year, please take a few minutes to read through the guidelines.

This study has been approved by the department research committee and has been done in accordance with the Helsinki protocol. This is a retrospective hospital-based study involving data from 2002 to 2010. The Department of Burns, Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital maintains the records of firecracker-related injuries of the patients during these 3 days of Diwali festival, i.e. pre-Diwali, Diwali and post-Diwali days, when the disaster protocol is in place. The disaster protocol is supported and monitored by the Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India. The year-wise incidence is recorded in tabel:1 shown below.  A total of 1373 patients visited the emergency clinic around Diwali over these 9 years.

Table 1: Number of firecracker-related injury patients around Diwali and their age distribution from 2002 to 2010

Considering the noise pollution caused by the firecrackers, the Supreme Court of India, which is the apex court, passed a legislation in the year 2005, to stop the noise pollution between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. of the following day. The authors analyzed the impact of the prohibitive orders of the apex court on the reporting of firecracker-related injuries in our hospital.


Exactly 1373 patients with firecracker-related injury attended the burn casualty over a period of 3 days around Diwali festival from, 2002 to 2010. There has been a continuous increase in the number of patients over the past 9 years, barring a small reduction in 2003 and 2007 [Figure 1]. There has been an obvious male preponderance (84.8%) in the occurrence of the injury [Figure 1].

Figure 1: Year-wise distribution of patients with firecracker-related injuries around Diwali festival

Figure 2: Types of fireworks causing injury around Diwali festival

Being a retrospective study, the details of the mode of injury were not available in the records of majority of them. The detail of the firecrackers causing the injury was available for 230 patients. The Anar (flower pot) was found to be the most common causative agent, closely followed by Bombs (sound-emitting fireworks) [Figure 2].

Firecrackers are commonly used during celebrations because of their sound, sparkle and sudden burst of colours, expressing the festive mood. They are used during Tihar in Nepal, Hari Raya in Malaysia, Day of Ashura in Morocco, Guy Fawkes Night or bonfire night in the United Kingdom, Independence Day and Halloween in the USA, Bastille Day in France, Spanish Fallas and New Year’s Day in Guatemala, Chinese New Year by the Chinese and many other festivals all over the world.

Store your fireworks safely:

In a closed box, somewhere cool and dry, out of reach of children and animals and away from all sources of heat, until the time they’re needed. Locked away is best. Don’t keep the box under the stairs or in a passageway.

Pets hate bangs and flashes:

Pets get very frightened on fireworks night, so keep all your pets indoor and close all the curtains to make things calmer. Remember it’s not just your own fireworks that cause distress, so you may have to have your pets indoors on several nights when other displays are taking place.

Think ahead and be prepared:

Before you start, make sure you’ll be giving yourself enough room in a safe place to get to and from your box of fireworks while the display is going on. Have a full bucket of water handy for any emergency, and for putting used sparklers into. If you have the chance to get together with some other families, try to go to the home with the biggest open space and safest surroundings.

Never try to re-ignite the fireworks that don’t light in the first instance. Never give ANY firework item to small children. Never throw fireworks at another person. Never carry fireworks in your pocket. Never shoot fireworks from metal or glass containers. Never experiment, modify, or attempt to make your own fireworks.

Watch what you wear:

Loose clothing can very easily catch fire, and should not be worn near any fire or fireworks. Long dangle scarves can be risky too. If anyone’s clothing does catch fire, follow the rule: Stop – Don’t run. Drop to the ground. Roll to put out the flames.

One at a time please:

You (or another adult that you choose) must be the only person letting off fireworks. Don’t allow anyone else – especially children – to do so while your display is going on. Let the fireworks off one at a time (not lots at once) and don’t rush. Light the tip of each firework at arm’s length, using fireworks lighter or fuse wick. Stand well back immediately. If one doesn’t go off, don’t go back to it – it could still be live, and could go off unexpectedly on your face. Right at the end of your fireworks night, douse the ‘duds’ with lots of water, keep it soaking in a bucket of water. Never throw left over fireworks onto a bonfire.

The following fireworks must not be supplied to the general public:

  • Aerial wheels
  • Bangers, flash bangers or double bangers
  • Jumping crackers
  • Jumping ground spinners
  • Spinners
  • Mini rockets
  • Shot tubes – previously known as air bombs
  • Shot tubes – previously known as shell-in-mortar
  • A battery containing bangers, flash bangers or double bangers
  • A combination (other than a wheel) which includes one or more bangers, flash bangers or double bangers.

Different fireworks mean different hazards:

Read the instructions on each one carefully (by flashlight, never an open flame) and follow them properly. Rockets, for instance, should be launched from a rocket launcher, not from a bottle. Sparklers need careful handling – light them one at a time at arm’s length; don’t give one to any child under 5 years of age; make sure that anyone holding a sparkler wears gloves; and put each spent one into a bucket of water as soon as it’s gone out.

No fooling:

Putting fireworks in your pocket is stupid and dangerous. Throwing fireworks at people is stupid and dangerous and illegal; it’s a criminal offense to do so.

Fireworks and booze don’t mix:

Drinking alcohol presents an added danger when there are fireworks and bonfires around. So don’t drink during your fireworks display.

Watch that person:

Keep children well away from fireworks, and never let a child handle or light one. Even sparklers can be dangerous if unsupervised! Do not give sparklers to a child under five. Make sure that children are aware of the dangers.

First Aid:

Burns happen when your skin comes into contact with something hot, such as fire, or if you are exposed to a radiated heat source, such as the sun.

Burns are usually divided into three categories depending on how much of the skin they affect. Superficial burns (first degree) affect the surface of the skin, making it red, swollen, and painful. This sort of burn can be treated at home and usually heals in between 7-10 days. Partial (second degree) and full thickness (third degree) burns are much more serious, and require medical attention.

Treating minor burns:

To treat superficial (minor) burns at home follow the advice below.

  • Cool the skin using cool, or tepid, water for between 10-30 minutes, ideally within 20 minutes of the injury happening. This will prevent the burn getting worse.
  • Do not use ice, iced water, creams, or greasy substances, such as butter to sooth the burn. A cool bath, or shower, will help to soothe the burn.
  • If fingers or toes are burned, try and separate them with dry, sterile, non-adhesive dressings.
  • Avoid any kind of friction or pressure on the burnt area.
  • If the burn is painful, taking a mild painkiller, such as paracetamol, or ibuprofen, can help. However, always check the packaging to make sure that you take the correct dosage.
  • Do not interfere with the burn, or break any blisters. If the burn is very painful, or seems to be getting worse Rush the victim to the hospital immediately.
  • Deep, or large burns, or burns to the face, hands, or across joints, must always be checked by a doctor and may require hospital treatment.

Health & Environment friendly tips to celebrate Diwali:

  • Instead of individual celebration prefer community celebration. With the increasing trend of gated community all the families of the community can celebrate Diwali in the common space. This will ensure reduced cost of celebration; paper pollution in a limited space and as compared to individual celebration, community celebration will cause less air and noise pollution.
  • Even while celebrating commonly make sure that you limit your celebration for a limited period of time. Your celebration can last for maximum 3 to 4 hours.
  • Instead of electric illumination go for traditional lightening of earthen lamps or diyas. This will not only enhance the beauty of your house but will also cut down the enormous electric consumption. Though earthen lamps need oil but the quantity is less and it gives light for at least 3-4 hours.
  • Cut down your shopping list and avoid purchasing unwanted and unnecessary things this Diwali. Excess consumerism is directly related to the consumption of raw material used to manufacture those things. Excessive consumerism increases the undue pressure on the natural resources.
  • Instead of buying “one-time use” items go for recyclable things. Secondly while cleaning your home for Deepawali instead of disposing things it is better to give it to under-privilege people.
  • Celebrate Diwali with a different meaning. You can celebrate this Diwali with poor and under-privilege children. Share your Diwali crackers, sweets and happiness with poor children.

Don’t light flying fireworks if there is a heavy wind

Never take unnecessary risks while lighting fireworks, just to show off. Pool your pocket money and have a professional perform pyrotechnics for the benefit of many Dos & Don’t s While Bursting Crackers

The Do’s

  • Make sure you buy Fireworks from a licensed shop.
  • Always keep the fireworks in a closed box.
  • Store crackers away from sources of fire or ignition also keep them away from the reach of children.
  • Read the instructions and follow all safety precautions recommended for the use of fire works.
  • Light crackers in open spaces.
  • While lighting the crackers stand at an arm’s length from the cracker.
  • Discard used fireworks in a bucket of water. In this manner you can avoid people from stepping on to and hurting their feet from used fireworks which are thrown on the ground.
  • Keep buckets of water and blankets ready, in case a firebreaks out.
  • Wear heavier cotton clothes while lighting crackers so as to ensure maximum safety from fire.
  • If your clothes happen to catch fire, do not panic, drop down on the ground and roll.
  • Store water and keep it ready near the place of fireworks celebrations.
  • Keep a wet towel ready to cover your exposed parts when some crackers may accidentally burst.
  • Keep the regulators of your cooking gas cylinders turned off and do not keep the cylinders in balconies or open spaces to keep them protected from stray rockets.
  • Put earplugs (or cotton wool) in your ears.
  • Keep small portable extinguishers handy for urgent use.

 The Don t’s

  • Don’t ignite fireworks while holding them.
  • Don’t bend over the fireworks being ignited.
  • Don’t ignite fireworks in any container.
  • Don’t approach immediately to the misfired fireworks.
  • Don’t tamper with misfired fireworks.
  • Don’t attempt to make fireworks at home.
  • Don’t allow small children to handle fireworks.
  • Don’t throw or point fireworks at other people.
  • Don’t carry fireworks in the pocket.
  • Don’t store firecrackers near burning candles and diyas.
  • Don’t light firecrackers in narrow by lanes; preferably use open areas and parks.
  • Don’t wear synthetic clothing; preferably wear thick cotton clothing.
  • Don’t wear loosely hanging clothes; secure all clothes properly.
  • Don’t apply any cream or ointment or oil on burnt area.
  • Don’t drive recklessly while taking a burn victim to the hospital; a delay of up to one hour is immaterial.


Click the below link to download fireworks safety guidelines




First aid guidelines – Burns